References and Notes Pass the Mic June 2021

Adedapo , A., & Kaplan, F. (2020, August 21). The Education of Black Children in the Jim Crow South. America’s Black Holocaust Museum.

Andrews, E. (2014, January 29). Was Jim Crow a Real Person?

Cooper, A., & Bryan, K. (2021, May 13). Awareness to Advocacy: Black ESL Students in the United States. Presented at Kennesaw State University 19th Annual ESOL Conference, Kennesaw, GA.

de Haan, B. R. (2020, June). Juneteenth 19 June aka Emancipation Day. Racial Justice Series. Presented at DASACC for Cultural Awareness, Warren County, NJ

de Haan, D. (2020, December 31). Op-Ed: NJ schools need a plan to rescue students from COVID-19 chasm. NJSpotlight News. NJSpotlight .

Dotterer, G., Hedges, A., & Parker, H. (2016, January 14). The Digital Divide in the Age of the Connected Classroom How Technology Helps Bridge the Achievement Gap.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2016, July 28). Unequal Opportunity: Race and Education. Brookings.

Purcell, K., Buchanan, J., & Friedrich, L. (2020, May 30). How Teachers Are Using Technology at Home and in Their Classrooms. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech.

The Smithsonian Natural Museum History of American History. (n.d.). The Quest for Education – Separate Is Not Equal.

The Smithsonian National Museum of American History. (n.d.). The Educated Citizen – Separate Is Not Equal.

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2021, May 5). African Americans and Education During Reconstruction: The Tolson’s Chapel Schools (U.S. National Park Service). National Parks Service.,for%20participating%20in%20civic%20life.

White, S. (2020, November 2). What Does it Mean to Be a Black Immigrant in the United States? > The Immigrant Learning Center. The Immigrant Learning Center.


1 The Freedmenís Bureau was established in 1865 to aid formerly enslaved African Americans. Its limited resources never met the tremendous demand for education from African Americans across the South.

2 Papiamentu, also spelled Papiamento, creole language based on Portuguese but heavily influenced by Spanish. In the early 21st century, it was spoken by about 250,000 people, primarily on the Caribbean islands of CuraÁao, Aruba, and Bonaire. It is an official language of CuraÁao and Aruba.