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1 The Freedmenís Bureau was established in 1865 to aid formerly enslaved African Americans. Its limited resources never met the tremendous demand for education from African Americans across the South.
2 Papiamentu, also spelled Papiamento, creole language based on Portuguese but heavily influenced by Spanish. In the early 21st century, it was spoken by about 250,000 people, primarily on the Caribbean islands of CuraÁao, Aruba, and Bonaire. It is an official language of CuraÁao and Aruba.