1 “Professional Licensing and Certification in the U.S.”, World Education Services webpage, http://www.wes.org/ info/licensing.asp.
2 Michael Sapiro,“What is the Difference Between A Teaching License and Teaching Certification?” Concordia Online Blog, Concordia University (September 3, 2015), https://online.cuw.edu/blog/what-is-the-differencebetween- a-teaching-license-and-a-teachingcertification/.
3 Conor P. Williams, Amaya Garcia, Kaylan Connally, Shayna Cook, and Kim Dancy, Multilingual Paraprofessionals: An Untapped Resource for Supporting American Pluralism (Washington, D.C.: New America, June 2016), https://na-production.s3.amazonaws.com/ documents/DLLWH_ParasBrief6.1.pdf.
4 Jorge P. Osterling and Keith Buchanan, “Tapping a Valuable Source for Prospective ESOL Teachers: Northern Virginia’s Bilingual Paraeducators Career-Ladder School- University Partnership,” Bilingual Research Journal 27, no. 3 (2003): 503–521; Michael Genzuk and Reynaldo Baca, “The Paraeducator-to-Teacher Pipeline: A 5-Year Retrospective on an Innovative Teacher Preparation Program for Latina(os),” Education and Urban Society (November 1998): 73–88; Christine L. Smith, Focus on an Untapped Classroom Resource: Helping Paraprofessionals Become Teachers (Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board, April 2003), http://files.eric.ed.gov/ fulltext/ED477170.pdf; Jorgelina Abbate-Vaughn and Patricia C. Paugh, “The Paraprofessional-to-Teacher Pipeline: Barriers and Accomplishments,” Journal of Developmental Education 33, no.1 (2009): 14–27, http:// files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ887836.pdf; Conor P. Williams, Amaya Garcia, Kaylan Connally, Shayna Cook, and Kim Dancy, Multilingual Paraprofessionals: An Untapped Resource for Supporting American Pluralism (Washington, D.C.: New America, June 2016), https:// na-production.s3.amazonaws.com/documents/ DLLWH_ParasBrief6.1.pdf; Patricia J. Bonner, Maria A. Pacino, and Beverly Hardcastle Stanford, “Transition from Paraprofessionals to Bilingual Teachers: Latino Voices and Experiences in Education,” Journal of Hispanic Higher Education 10, no. 3 (2011): 212–225; Ellen M. Rintell and Michelle Pierce, “Becoming Maestra: Latina Paraprofessionals as Teacher Candidates in Bilingual Education,” Journal of Hispanic Higher Education 2, no. 1 (2003): 5–14, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.949.1148&rep=rep1&type=pdf; and Kerri J. Wenger, Tawnya Lubbes, Martha Lazo, Isabel Azcarraga, Suzan Sharp, and Gisela Ernst-Slavit, “Hidden Teachers, Invisible Students: Lessons Learned from Exemplary Bilingual Paraprofessionals in Secondary Schools,” Teacher Education Quarterly 31, no. 2 (2004): 89–111, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795248.pdf.
5 Conor P. Williams, Amaya Garcia, Kaylan Connally, Shayna Cook, and Kim Dancy, Multilingual Paraprofessionals: An Untapped Resource for Supporting American Pluralism (Washington, D.C.: New America, June 2016), https://na-production.s3.amazonaws.com/ documents/DLLWH_ParasBrief6.1.pdf.
6 National Education Association, “Getting Educated: Paraeducators,” http://www.nea.org/home/18605.htm.
7 Laura Goe and Lauren Matlach, Supercharging Student Success: Policy Levers for Helping Paraprofessionals Have a Positive Influence in the Classroom (Washington, D.C.: Center on Great Teachers and Leaders, American Institutes for Research, September 2014), http:// www.gtlcenter.org/sites/default/files/Snapshot_ Paraprofessional.pdf.
8 Charles T. Clotfelter, Steven W. Hemelt, and Helen F. Ladd, Teaching Assistants and Nonteaching Staff: Do They Improve Student Outcomes? CALDER working paper 169 (Washington, D.C.: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, October 2016), http://www.caldercenter.org/sites/default/files/ WP%20169.pdf.
10 “Table 204.27,” Digest of Education Statistics 2015 (Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, 2016), http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016014. pdf.
11 Rachel A. Valentino and Sean F. Reardon, “Effectiveness of Four Instructional Programs Designed to Serve English Language Learners: Variation by Ethnicity and Initial English Proficiency,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 37 (April 2015): 612–637; “Study of Dual- Language Immersion in the Portland Public Schools: Year 4 Briefing” (Washington, D.C.: American Councils for International Education, November 2015), https://res. cloudinary.com/bdy4ger4/image/upload/v1446848442/DLI_Year_4_Summary_Nov2015v3_1_jwny3e.pdf; Ilana M. Umansky and Sean F. Reardon, “Reclassification Patterns Among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms,” American Educational Research Journal 51, no. 5 (October 2014): 879–912.
12 U.S. Department of Education, Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide Listing 1990–1991 Through 2016–2017 (Washington, D.C.: Office of Postsecondary Education, 2016), https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/ pol/tsa.html; Gabriela Uro and Alejandra Barrio, English Language Learners in America’s Great City Schools (Washington, D.C.: Council of the Great City Schools, 2013), 10, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543305.pdf.
13 U.S. Department of Education, Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide Listing 1990–1991 Through 2016–2017 (Washington, D.C.: Office of Postsecondary Education, 2016), https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/pol/ tsa.html.
14 The State of Teacher Diversity in American Education (Washington, D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute, September 2015), http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/ files/The%20State%20of%20Teacher%20Diversity%20 (3)_0.pdf; and The State of Racial Diversity in the Educator Workforce (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, July 2016), http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/ eval/highered/racial-diversity/state-racial-diversityworkforce. pdf.
15 Hannah Putman, Michael Hansen, Kate Walsh, and Diana Quintero, High Hopes and Harsh Realities: The Real Challenges to Building a Diverse Workforce (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, August 2016), https:// www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/ browncenter_20160818_teacherdiversityreportpr_ hansen.pdf.
16 Kaylan Connally and Kim Dancy, “Paraprofessionals Could Help Solve Bilingual Teacher Shortages,” EdCentral (blog), New America, April 26, 2016, https://www. newamerica.org/education-policy/edcentral/bilingualteacher- shortages/; Kaylan Connally and Melissa Tooley, “What Is the Future of Teacher Diversity in U.S. Schools?” New America Weekly, New America, October 1, 2015, https://www.newamerica.org/weekly/94/what-is-thefuture- of-teacher-diversity-in-us-schools/.